The Predictive Brain State: The Solution to the Impossibility of Being Conscious and Interacting in the Present; Or, how the Brain Interacts with Space/time. Jamshid Ghajar (Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA ) P1
The PREDICTIVE BRAIN STATE: Jam Ghajar MD PhD, Stanford Brain Performance Center, SyncThink Inc. Founder.XXX Our brains have an inherent problem. It takes time to process information and the outside world is not still, nor are we. So, we are always in the past. Yet we interact in the present- catch the ball, have conversations and drive our cars. How do we do it, if all we sense has already happened? The only way to solve this dilemma is to be in the future. We have to anticipate or predict the incoming sensory information for interaction. We predict the future to interact in the present and sense the past. This important predictive function of the brain is revealed in numbers. There are 87 billion neurons in the brain and 80% of them are the granule cells of the cerebellum. The input to the cerebellum is from sensory areas of the brain and the output is to motor and cognitive areas. The cerebellum synchronizes incoming sensory information with motor and cognitive function by prediction. The cognitive connection has only been revealed recently showing that over 50% of the cerebellum output is to cognitive or attention areas of the brain. Prediction can be defined as anticipation as well but it really is incomplete without accurate timing. Synchronization is a better term since it implies same timing- synchronizing sensory input with motor or cognitive output. Prediction or anticipation or synchronization= attention. Attention combines spatial and temporal prediction using synchronization to achieve (selective) and maintain (sustain-concentration) sensory focus and not get distracted. Attention is our window on the world. It allows us to interact with the outside world. Without attention we are in a past driven by the outside world, not a future driven by ourselves. How can we measure prediction, synchronization or attention? The eye is a perfect system to use since it senses visual input and needs to move to have visual input land on the fovea of the eye- dynamic visual synchronization. The key metric is the difference in eye position, with respect to the target position over time- eye-target variance. Through our research we now know that attention varies by age, fatigue and cognitive impairments. Predictive Brain State science will enable us to better classify neuro-cognitive disorders and target treatments. Training brain prediction through dynamic visual synchronization feedback will dramatically accelerate brain performance-attention.XXXReferencesXXXThe Predictive Brain State: Asynchrony in Disorders of Attention: Ghajar, J.B.G., Ivry, R.B. Neuroscientist: 15, 232-242, 2009.XXX The Predictive Brain State: Timing Deficiency in Traumatic Brain Injury?: Ghajar, J.B.G., Ivry, R Journal of Neurorehabilitation & Neural Repair 22(3) 217- 227, 2008.XXXQuantification of Predictive Timing. Maruta, J., Heaton, J.J., Kryskow E.M., Maule, A.L., Ghajar, J.B.G.: Dynamic Visuo-motor Synchronization: Behavior Research Methods, Vol 45:289-300, 2013.XXXVisual Tracking and Aging. Maruta J, Spielman LA, Rajashekar U, Ghajar J. Front Neurol. 2017 Nov 30;8:640.XXXAssociation of Visual Tracking Metrics With Post-concussion Symptomatology. Maruta J, Spielman LA, Rajashekar U, Ghajar J. Front Neurol. 2018 Jul 26;9:611.