Being and Truth A Phenomenal Interpretation Applied to Duns Scotus's Individual Theory Jiayang Sun (Philosophy, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ China) P1
In 1915, Martin Heidegger published his habilitation titled The Theory of Categories and Meaning in Duns Scotus. In a famous preface, and especially in the extremely important supplement which he introduced into his habilitation in 1917, Heidegger indicated that, through the method of phenomenological reduction and historical hermeneutics, he could really make the issue of the individuality of Scotus have the compatibility with the modern theory of subjectivity. As we all know, Immanuel Kant provides a very complicated systemic interpretation for arguing that, Subjectivity, which is intertwined with the judgment, can confer the logical truth and truth-value in the broadest sense as a leading actor. This version of truth theory is obviously very different from most of the truth theories in our time, but in my view, it can still make a significant role for now and never be out of fashion. In this paper, I will dedicate myself to present how Heidegger uses and interpret the theory of individuality and Being of Duns Scotus to construct an extraordinary theory on Subjectivity of his own. According to this, the first section of my paper is related to the project of Heidegger that transfers the logical formations and categories of logic into the structure of consciousness and Subjectivity, which is on the basis of the a priori evidence. Actually, most medieval scholars, even Scotus, thought that the former mainly belongs to the pure objective domain. And because of the absolute distinction of God and human beings, there cannot be any sameness between the objective domain and humanistic or subjective domain. The greatest contribution of Heidegger is that he reinterprets the intention or sense of Subjectivity with the help of the theory from Kant and phenomenology, and the latter is especially and directly from Brentano?s On the manifold sense of Being in Aristotle and Husserl's Logische Untersuchungen. In the second section, I will introduce another most significant concept ?Being? besides the "individuality" in the theory of Scotus. Actually, as Heidegger demonstrates, the concept "Dasein", which is inspired by the concept "individuality" from Scotus and created by himself, it can be identified with Subjectivity only through the "mediating" operation of Being. Hence in the following, I will exhibit in detail, from 1927, in Heidegger's Sein und Zeit, he makes the Ausagenlogik conforms to our everyday experiments through his phenomenological analysis and confirmed that only this kind of "logic" or structure of our experiment and living world, which is called existential structure can be the essence of Being and Dasein.